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New NFPA 1225 Standard for Emergency Services Communications Officially Issued

By Don Bishop

The 2022 edition of NFPA 1225 Standard for Emergency Services Communications has been completed and officially issued, as reported by Chief Alan Perdue (Ret.), CFO, FM, the executive director of the Safer Buildings Coalition. The step has implications for the Emergency Responder Communications Enhancement System (ERCES) stakeholder community, Perdue said, in a statement he posted to the Safer Buildings Coalition website on Sept. 23.

Chief Alan Perdue (Ret.), CFO, FM, executive director of the Safer Buildings Coalition.

“Newer editions of NFPA standards often provide opportunities to better address the regulation of a particular component of the built environment,” the statement reads. “In the case of NFPA 1225, that relates to ERCES. As each year passes, our experiences and technological advances help shape where the standard needs to ultimately be for the benefit of all stakeholders. First and foremost is the safety of the public and our emergency responders. Additionally, it allows gray areas to become better-focused, providing clarity for those following and enforcing the standard.”

NFPA provides an avenue for authorities having jurisdiction (AHJs) to use new versions before their next adoption process, which in some cases could be years away, Perdue said.

“As an example, let us say your jurisdiction adopts the 2016 Edition of NFPA 1221,” the statement reads. “If you look at Section 1.5 Equivalency of the 2016 edition, it states, “Nothing in this standard is intended to prevent the use of systems, methods, or devices of equivalent or superior quality, strength, fire resistance, effectiveness, durability, and safety over those prescribed by this standard”. That same language is also located within the 2019 edition of NFPA 1221.”

Citing his experience as a former fire marshal and AHF, Perdue said that he found it beneficial to be able to allow the use of a newer edition of a consensus standard. He said there was considerable comfort knowing that what he would be permitting to be used had been through an open, consensus-based process whereby many people participate in the code development process providing valuable insights. One caveat to that permission, he said, was that the applicable sections of the standard being used must be used in its entirety. One could not choose between different editions, he said.

 What’s Changed? 

There were too many changes within the 2022 Edition of NFPA 1225 to include in his statement on the Safer Buildings Coalition website, Perdue said, but he highlights a few key areas.

“One of the most important foundational aspects of the changes is that all the technical provisions related to ERCES were placed into their own chapter, which is Chapter 18,” the statement reads. “Additionally, definitions are in Chapter 2, and the testing requirements are in Chapter 20.”

Changes to Chapter 2 Definitions included new definitions created for backbone cable components, frequencies, frequency license holder, ERCES, link budget and RF system designer, the statement reads. It said these terms were defined to provide more clarity about their use within the standard.

Changes within Chapter 18 Technical Provisions included adding the term Frequency License Holder within multiple sections of the standard to ensure that those responsible for providing permission to retransmit on a licensed frequency is included in the process of planning, reviewing, installing and testing of in-building ERCES, Perdue said. He said it was imperative that this connection of these stakeholders be a requirement within the standard.

“Also notable are the significant changes within the pathway survivability requirements of the standard located in sections 18.12.3.3 and 18.12.3.4,” the statement reads. “The changes better clarify the difference between buildings less than 75 feet in height and those greater than 75 feet in height often referred to as high-rise. The new requirements also give credit for buildings that are protected with NFPA 13 fire sprinkler systems and clearly identify what fire rating is needed if required for the backbone.”

Purdue also said to look at section 18.9.3, which addresses the noise floor and what actions one must take to ensure they do no harm to the macro system.

Chapter 20 Testing requires that the system initially be tested for acceptance and then periodically thereafter, Perdue said. He NFPA clarified the frequency of testing, and it left the method of testing required to the AHJ and Frequency License Holder. Those individuals conducting testing may use multiple methods as described within Annex A Section A.20.3.10, he said. According to Perdue, those methods include SINR, BER, POLQA and others. He said it is recommended that AHJs look at best practice methods for their jurisdiction.

Accessing the Standard

“If you are in the ERCES business, you must have a copy of the standard or I put you in the ‘Chuck and a truck trying to make a quick buck’ category,” Perdue said. “Why? Because if you do not read, understand and follow the rules, you are creating more problems than solutions. Visit the NFPA website at nfpa.org and go to the codes and standards section. Sign up for a hard or electronic copy of the applicable standard or standards that your organization will be utilizing.”

Perdue referred to what baseball player and commentator Dizzy Dean said in the 1940s when referring to a pitcher whose time on the mound was over. He quoted Dean as saying, “You can stick a fork in him folks; he’s done.”

Similarly, Perdue said, so is the development of the 2022 Edition of NFPA 1225 done.

“Now is the time to utilize the great work so many people put together in the code development process,” Perdue’s statement reads. “Review the document, utilize the document, and lets all work together to make the design, installation, and maintenance of ERCES the best it can be. Remember, the safety of our emergency responders depend on it.”

_________________

Don Bishop is executive editor and associate publisher of AGL Magazine.

BAI Communications Grows U.S. Infrastructure Business With Mobilitie Acquisition

By Don Bishop

Click here to play video.
Igor Leprince (left) and Don Bishop.

 

Combining BAI Communications and Mobilitie

A multinational communications infrastructure company, BAI Communications, expects to close a transaction in the third quarter that would grow its business mostly in the United States, with potential for international expansion. The pending acquisition of Mobilitie would bring to BAI Communications 10,000 small cells in 45 states, 300 macro towers in 14 states, 220 venues in 39 states, and agreements to provide wireless communications to the public transit systems in Seattle and the San Francisco Bay Area, according to a statement from BAI Communications.

“The acquisition of Mobilitie fits perfectly with our growth strategy, scope, scale and geography,” said Igor Leprince, BAI Communications’ group chief executive officer, in an interview with AGL eDigest. “It’s a one-of-a-kind opportunity because it aligns almost perfectly with our core business as a provider of neutral-host communication services and our expertise in transit. Mobilitie’s scope is almost exactly where our portfolio and world scope is.”

The acquisition would give BAI Communications a national scale and a presence across the entire United States, Leprince said.

Igor Leprince, group CEO of BAI Communications, about the company’s acquisition of Mobilitie: ‘It’s an acquisition to help us to be more effective in delivering the benefit of neutral-host infrastructure.’

“Right now, we are present through Transit Wireless largely around New York and in the East Coast, but Mobilitie will significantly accelerate our development in the region,” Leprince said. “Additionally, it will enhance our offering that we have in key global markets. It’s an acquisition to help us to be more effective in delivering the benefit of neutral-host infrastructure. A benefit also — for Mobilitie — comes from additional funding, additional capability that we bring from around the world, and fulfills our ambition for growth as a neutral host and for growth in the United States.”

Although Mobilitie has 300 towers, a small number in comparison with the tens of thousands of towers several other companies each own in the United States, Leprince said that BAI operates about 700 towers in Australia for mobile network operators and broadcasters. “This is absolutely part of our business,” he said “That’s an important part of the portfolio we’re acquiring from Mobilitie.”

About BAI Communications, Leprince said, “We have been more well-known for our expertise in transit systems and underground, as well as slightly above ground, which is more about small cells for connectivity in a dense, urban type of environment. Clearly, for us, this is an interesting part of the portfolio of Mobilitie. We are as excited about the towers as we are about the rest of the portfolio of Mobilitie.”

Elaborating on Mobilitie’s appeal, Leprince pointed to the opportunity for growth that the acquisition represents.

Gary Jabara, founder and chairman at Mobilitie, said the company has the foundation needed to accelerate its impact on a global scale.

“For me, it’s growing the portfolio that Mobilitie has, including venues, small cells and towers, and deploying the contract dimension,” Leprince said. “For example, the contract for the San Francisco Bay Area is one that will be deployed in the years to come. The interesting thing is the fact that we can boost the growth of this portfolio outside the United States, using our presence and experience in the UK, Europe, Australia, Canada and Hong Kong.”

The BAI Communications executive said that the company is a strong believer in the power of private networks, another reason the Mobilitie acquisition is appealing.

“Private networks are to some extent not too different from some of the big venues that BAI and Mobilitie have deployed,” Leprince said. “So I think that might be the ‘gem’ from this acquisition, the growth trajectory that Mobilitie has, but with the additional growth that the combination with BAI could bring. That’s what we’re excited about.”

In the transaction, a Los Angeles-based private equity firm, Shamrock Capital, would be selling its ownership stake in Mobilitie to BAI Communications. According to Shamrock, it previously invested $100 million in equity capital with Mobilitie.

Gary Jabara, founder and chairman at Mobilitie, said, “Mobilitie has grown exponentially following Shamrock’s investment in 2013, providing the financial support required to scale nationally and fuel our expansion into 5G. Together, we have firmly established Mobilitie’s position as the market leader in 5G wireless infrastructure and have the foundation needed to accelerate our impact on a global scale. We’re excited for the next chapter of our growth as part of BAI Communications.”

CPP Investments’ head of portfolio value creation and non-executive director on the BAI Communications board of directors, Max Biagosch, about Mobilitie: ‘It is a true enhancement of our broader portfolio, extending our investment in digital infrastructure.’

Canada Pension Plan Investment Board, known as CPP Investments, owns 86 percent of BAI Communications, which has its official headquarters in Chatswood, New South Wales, Australia, and assets in the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada and Hong Kong. The company grew from a business known as Broadcast Australia, which today delivers 126 million broadcast hours to 99 percent of the Australian population and which remains a significant part of the BAI Communications group of companies.

CPP Investments’ head of portfolio value creation and non-executive director on the BAI Communications board of directors, Max Biagosch, said, “This acquisition is an exciting and dynamic move for the BAI business and represents an attractive opportunity for CPP Investments to increase its financial commitments and generate long-term sustainable returns for our contributors and beneficiaries. It is a true enhancement of our broader portfolio, extending our investment in digital infrastructure, which is critical to people and communities around the world as our lives become increasingly dependent on connectivity.”

In Leprince’s view, there is more to come for BAI Communications.

“The deals with Transport for London and with Mobilitie demonstrate our ambition for growth and becoming a leader in 5G neutral host infrastructure,” he said. (See “London Selects BAI Communications for Neutral-host Communications Infrastructure Concession.”)

“We don’t want to stop here,” Leprince said. “We want to focus on delivering on these deals, delivering on these organic and non-organic wins. In addition, we want to continue to push more. We are fortunate to have ambitious and supportive shareholders. We want to continue to drive this neutral-host solution for mobile network operators in small cells, venues, private networks, smart cities and fiber, and drive our transit communications business. What we have done is only the tip of the iceberg. There’s so much more than we can do for mobile network operators and transit agencies.”

_____________________

Don Bishop is executive editor and associate publisher of AGL Magazine.

Also see:

“Neutral-host Infrastructure, Small Cells to Underpin Smart City Applications”

“London Selects BAI Communications for Neutral-host Communications Infrastructure Concession”

 

 

BAI Communications Grows U.S. Infrastructure Business With Mobilitie Acquisition

By Don Bishop

Click here to play video.
Igor Leprince (left) and Don Bishop.

 

Combining BAI Communications and Mobilitie

A multinational communications infrastructure company, BAI Communications, expects to close a transaction in the third quarter that would grow its business mostly in the United States, with potential for international expansion. The pending acquisition of Mobilitie would bring to BAI Communications 10,000 small cells in 45 states, 300 macro towers in 14 states, 220 venues in 39 states, and agreements to provide wireless communications to the public transit systems in Seattle and the San Francisco Bay Area, according to a statement from BAI Communications.

“The acquisition of Mobilitie fits perfectly with our growth strategy, scope, scale and geography,” said Igor Leprince, BAI Communications’ group chief executive officer, in an interview with AGL eDigest. “It’s a one-of-a-kind opportunity because it aligns almost perfectly with our core business as a provider of neutral-host communication services and our expertise in transit. Mobilitie’s scope is almost exactly where our portfolio and world scope is.”

The acquisition would give BAI Communications a national scale and a presence across the entire United States, Leprince said.

Igor Leprince, group CEO of BAI Communications, about the company’s acquisition of Mobilitie: ‘It’s an acquisition to help us to be more effective in delivering the benefit of neutral-host infrastructure.’

“Right now, we are present through Transit Wireless largely around New York and in the East Coast, but Mobilitie will significantly accelerate our development in the region,” Leprince said. “Additionally, it will enhance our offering that we have in key global markets. It’s an acquisition to help us to be more effective in delivering the benefit of neutral-host infrastructure. A benefit also — for Mobilitie — comes from additional funding, additional capability that we bring from around the world, and fulfills our ambition for growth as a neutral host and for growth in the United States.”

Although Mobilitie has 300 towers, a small number in comparison with the tens of thousands of towers several other companies each own in the United States, Leprince said that BAI operates about 700 towers in Australia for mobile network operators and broadcasters. “This is absolutely part of our business,” he said “That’s an important part of the portfolio we’re acquiring from Mobilitie.”

About BAI Communications, Leprince said, “We have been more well-known for our expertise in transit systems and underground, as well as slightly above ground, which is more about small cells for connectivity in a dense, urban type of environment. Clearly, for us, this is an interesting part of the portfolio of Mobilitie. We are as excited about the towers as we are about the rest of the portfolio of Mobilitie.”

Elaborating on Mobilitie’s appeal, Leprince pointed to the opportunity for growth that the acquisition represents.

Gary Jabara, founder and chairman at Mobilitie, said the company has the foundation needed to accelerate its impact on a global scale.

“For me, it’s growing the portfolio that Mobilitie has, including venues, small cells and towers, and deploying the contract dimension,” Leprince said. “For example, the contract for the San Francisco Bay Area is one that will be deployed in the years to come. The interesting thing is the fact that we can boost the growth of this portfolio outside the United States, using our presence and experience in the UK, Europe, Australia, Canada and Hong Kong.”

The BAI Communications executive said that the company is a strong believer in the power of private networks, another reason the Mobilitie acquisition is appealing.

“Private networks are to some extent not too different from some of the big venues that BAI and Mobilitie have deployed,” Leprince said. “So I think that might be the ‘gem’ from this acquisition, the growth trajectory that Mobilitie has, but with the additional growth that the combination with BAI could bring. That’s what we’re excited about.”

In the transaction, a Los Angeles-based private equity firm, Shamrock Capital, would be selling its ownership stake in Mobilitie to BAI Communications. According to Shamrock, it previously invested $100 million in equity capital with Mobilitie.

Gary Jabara, founder and chairman at Mobilitie, said, “Mobilitie has grown exponentially following Shamrock’s investment in 2013, providing the financial support required to scale nationally and fuel our expansion into 5G. Together, we have firmly established Mobilitie’s position as the market leader in 5G wireless infrastructure and have the foundation needed to accelerate our impact on a global scale. We’re excited for the next chapter of our growth as part of BAI Communications.”

CPP Investments’ head of portfolio value creation and non-executive director on the BAI Communications board of directors, Max Biagosch, about Mobilitie: ‘It is a true enhancement of our broader portfolio, extending our investment in digital infrastructure.’

Canada Pension Plan Investment Board, known as CPP Investments, owns 86 percent of BAI Communications, which has its official headquarters in Chatswood, New South Wales, Australia, and assets in the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada and Hong Kong. The company grew from a business known as Broadcast Australia, which today delivers 126 million broadcast hours to 99 percent of the Australian population and which remains a significant part of the BAI Communications group of companies.

CPP Investments’ head of portfolio value creation and non-executive director on the BAI Communications board of directors, Max Biagosch, said, “This acquisition is an exciting and dynamic move for the BAI business and represents an attractive opportunity for CPP Investments to increase its financial commitments and generate long-term sustainable returns for our contributors and beneficiaries. It is a true enhancement of our broader portfolio, extending our investment in digital infrastructure, which is critical to people and communities around the world as our lives become increasingly dependent on connectivity.”

In Leprince’s view, there is more to come for BAI Communications.

“The deals with Transport for London and with Mobilitie demonstrate our ambition for growth and becoming a leader in 5G neutral host infrastructure,” he said. (See “London Selects BAI Communications for Neutral-host Communications Infrastructure Concession.”)

“We don’t want to stop here,” Leprince said. “We want to focus on delivering on these deals, delivering on these organic and non-organic wins. In addition, we want to continue to push more. We are fortunate to have ambitious and supportive shareholders. We want to continue to drive this neutral-host solution for mobile network operators in small cells, venues, private networks, smart cities and fiber, and drive our transit communications business. What we have done is only the tip of the iceberg. There’s so much more than we can do for mobile network operators and transit agencies.”

_____________________

Don Bishop is executive editor and associate publisher of AGL Magazine.

Also see:

“Neutral-host Infrastructure, Small Cells to Underpin Smart City Applications”

“London Selects BAI Communications for Neutral-host Communications Infrastructure Concession”

 

 

Ensuring Safe, Reliable In-tunnel Wireless Solutions

A Gap Wireless Report

.

We are two decades into the new millennium, and the wireless communication pioneered in the previous century has become the foundation of every aspect of our lives. Wireless infrastructure is all but a utility, expected both indoors and out, from street level all the way to the top floor of the highest skyscraper. However, certain environments remain a challenge when it comes to wireless solutions. Tunnels are one such setting.

You do not have to be a miner deep underground to have a need for in-tunnel wireless connectivity. Millions of urban commuters pass through thousands of miles of rail and road tunnels every day, and for many, these tunnels represent wireless dead zones in which they are isolated from loved ones and locked out of their work.

However, tunnels do not have to be wireless wastelands. Although there are unique challenges in implementing in-tunnel wireless systems, there are emerging solutions that combat these challenges in an effective and affordable way. The following information examines these challenges and solutions to understand the best approach to in-tunnel wireless.

 

Challenges for In-tunnel Wireless Solutions

Tunnels, by their very nature, provide several obstacles for implementing ­wireless solutions. They are difficult to access and navigate, frequented as they are by vehicles and, in some cases, spanning just a few yards in diameter, and their shape can have different effects on different wireless signals depending on their frequency. Let’s consider these and other challenges of in-tunnel wireless solutions.

Logistics of Tunnel Work

The first challenge to implementing in-tunnel wireless solutions is simply accessing the tunnel itself. Most metro tunnels are in operation for most of the day, from the early morning to midnight or later. In some cases, tunnel operators limit maintenance windows to four hours or less. Compounding this problem is the fact that there are limited entry points to tunnels and limited space inside, requiring effective coordination among all workers. Depending on the work at hand, some projects cannot be left for the next available work window, but instead must be completed in one fell swoop.

Given these complicating factors, in-tunnel wireless solutions must be both simple to install and simple to maintain.

Tunnel Variety

Despite the relatively simple geometry of tunnels, the specific architecture of a given tunnel has a large effect on wireless propagation within. Tunnels can range from narrow to wide, from circular to square, from straight to curved. Existing tunnel infrastructure such as tracks, pipes and cables affects wireless propagation and how signals should be distributed for the best results. As with all wireless installations, the choice of antenna in in-tunnel solutions is an important consideration that must reflect the local environment.

Optical Link Budget

Because tunnels can span several tens of miles, in-tunnel wireless systems must take careful account of optical link budgets. The fiber-optic cable linking head-end and remote radio units will be subject to loss — typically 0.5 dB/km for single-mode (SM) fiber-optic cable. Splicers and connectors along the way will typically cause 0.3 dB loss, and filters used for wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) will account for a further loss of 0.8 dB to 1.2 dB (for coarse WDM, CWDM, this increases to 1.3 dB).

In a given 6-mile run of fiber optic cable, therefore, you must plan for 6 dB to 8 dB loss or even higher.

Handling Hand-offs

Above ground, the best practice for wireless system designers is to ensure minimal overlap in signals among sectors. In a tunnel deployment, zero overlap can create problems such as a high dropped call rate, high noise in the receiving path and uplink muting. To avoid this problem, in-tunnel wireless solutions may change cell radius, reposition antennas or force overlap by connecting sectors together. Carriers typically specify that one subway tunnel and one subway station constitute a sector, but other sectorizations are possible, based on the carrier’s preference.

Interference

As with any wireless deployment, in-tunnel wireless solutions must cope with the problem of interference. This includes passive intermodulation (PIM) and intermodulation (IM) interference from passive and active components, respectively. Interference can also include uplink noise from user devices operating at maximum power in an attempt to reach above ground macro cells. In busy subway stations, interference can also arise from many users trying to authenticate on the network simultaneously.

For in-tunnel wireless solutions, these sources of interference must be understood and measures must be taken to mitigate them.

 

 

Approaches to In-tunnel Wireless

Here is a closer look at the systems and components used to implement in-tunnel wireless solutions.

Distributed Antenna Systems

A properly designed distributed antenna system (DAS) ensures that wireless signals can propagate through the length of a tunnel. System operators commonly use DAS solutions in other environments where building materials can block signals or users require more capacity than generally would be available. A DAS either redirects external signals, such as those from a cell tower, or routes signals from a base transceiver station (BTS) provided by a wireless carrier. The system sends signals to antennas strategically distributed throughout a facility.

A DAS can be passive or active. A passive DAS uses a bidirectional amplifier (BDA) and coaxial cable combined with splitters and couplers to send signals directly to antennas. An active DAS consolidates signals at a head-end unit and sends them over fiber-optic cable to active remote radio units, which then feed into antennas. The typical length of most tunnels makes it necessary to use active systems to overcome signal loss. An active DAS can be analog or digital, referring to whether the head-end unit sends analog optic signals through the fiber-optic cables or whether it converts the RF signals to digital optical signals. For in-tunnel systems, digital DAS solutions generally provide a higher degree of control and flexibility, although analog systems can accommodate a larger bandwidth.

For in-tunnel wireless solutions, a popular approach for distributed antenna systems is an antenna that is literally distributed — in other words, a radiating cable.

Radiating Cables

A radiating cable, also called a leaky feeder, is a coaxial cable that acts as a distributed antenna. Manufacturers design radiating cables with periodic gaps (or apertures) in the outer conductor that allow the interior RF signals to radiate — analogous to the signal leaking from the cable. The apertures also serve to receive wireless signals broadcast from other sources, such as two-way radios, allowing the signals to propagate through the radiating cable and, therefore, travel much farther than they would otherwise. The design of the outer apertures can vary greatly among different radiating cables to influence the frequency range most suited to the leaky feeder.

Radiating cables are a natural fit for in-tunnel wireless solutions and serve as an effective alternative to traditional antennas, such as Yagi antennas. Radiating cables can cover the long distances typical of tunnels while providing consistent coverage along their length. Because of their leakiness, radiating cables must be used with signal amplifiers at regular intervals, depending on their rated longitudinal loss (e.g., 3 dBm per 100 meters of cable) which increases with signal frequency. In general, an amplifier is needed for roughly every three-tenths of a mile of cable, depending on frequency bands and cable size. Designers of in-tunnel wireless solutions also must consider the coupling loss of radiating cables, which refers to the loss between the cable and end user device. For best results, the radiating cable should be in line-of-sight of end devices, not hidden behind false ceilings or placed within cable ducts.

To understand the variety and parameters of radiating cables better, we take as an example the Radiaflex series of radiating cables from Radio Frequency Systems (RFS). Radiaflex cables comprise seven series tailored to different in-tunnel (or other confined coverage) wireless solutions, encompassing all major services from 75 MHz to 6 GHz. Some Radiaflex cables provide wideband coverage for multiband and multi-operator applications, while others are optimized for narrower high-frequency applications. All Radiaflex cables boast low longitudinal and coupling losses, which are critical characteristics for system design and total cost. Radiaflex cables conform to major international flame- and fire-retardancy standards

The choice of antennas in a wireless solution can have a significant effect on the cost, look and performance of a given system. For in-tunnel solutions, there are pros and cons to balance in the choice between enclosed Yagi antennas and radiating cables. With their controlled pattern of radiation perpendicular to the cable, radiating cables provide uniform coverage throughout the tunnel, whereas enclosed Yagi antennas provide less consistent coverage. Furthermore, radiating cables require little clearance from tunnel walls, while Yagi antennas require more space. Clearance can be a problem in tunnels, where space is at a premium. The advantage of Yagi antennas for in-tunnel solutions is that they are easier to install and cost less than radiating cables, which require full tunnel access and installation that is more complex.

 

Ensuring Safety With In-Tunnel Wireless

Effective in-tunnel wireless solutions are critical to ensure the safety of tunnel crews and commuters. Tunnels are particularly challenging environments in the event of disasters such as fire, because they are confined spaces with few exit points. It is therefore imperative to support safety workers with reliable wireless communications in any scenario.

Furthermore, as transportation technology continues to improve and vehicles become increasingly networked, in-tunnel wireless communications will be necessary for the reliability of connected systems. Self-driving vehicles may rely on edge or cloud compute capabilities to function safely in all situations, and tunnels should not disrupt any required mission-critical connectivity.

To ensure safety, in-tunnel wireless solutions must accommodate a wide range of wireless technologies, from two-way emergency bands — such as Family Radio Service (FRS) and General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) in North America and Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) and Private Mobile Radio (PMR) in Europe — to modern cellular bands up to 5G and beyond. Note that although sub-6 GHz 5G is attainable in tunnels with the right equipment, it is unlikely that millimeter-wave (mmWave) 5G will be practical for such environments. In road tunnels, FM and digital audio broadcasting (DAB) services must also be supported, both for safety and to ensure commuter satisfaction.

Although the complexity of wireless systems generally increases with the number of technologies supported, some in-tunnel solutions are specially designed to accommodate a wide range of wireless technologies. The RFS Radiaflex radiating cables, for example, support multiple operators with continuous coverage in bands in all standardized 4G and 5G frequency bands simultaneously to mission-critical spectrum.

The equipment used for in-tunnel wireless solutions should be designed to withstand hazardous conditions, such as fires, to ensure it continues to function during an emergency. Some wireless equipment providers offer fire-resistant components to ensure uninterrupted service during emergencies, such as the RFS DragonSkin coaxial cable, which is fire-resistant up to 1000°C and is UL 2196-certified for low-smoke, zero-halogen (LSZH) emissions. Cable installation must also account for the potential of fire. For example, if radiating cables are installed with clamps or cable ties, it is important to incorporate metal versions of these fasteners alongside the cheaper plastic clamps or ties. These prevent the cable from detaching in the event of a fire that causes plastic fasteners to fail, ensuring the cable remains functional and keeping it clear of potential escape routes.

Although in-tunnel wireless systems face challenges not found in other environments, the solutions discussed here are designed to surmount these obstacles and ensure that tunnels are both safe and enjoyable. To design wireless systems that meet all the needs of a given tunnel while minimizing total cost of ownership (TCO), it is important to collaborate with the right wireless suppliers. Look for providers with a proven background of successful in-tunnel deployments, like RFS, who can draw upon their ample experience with in-tunnel wireless solutions to offer fit-for-purpose equipment and informed advice.

_________________

Source: Gap Wireless

To obtain a PDF copy of the “In-Tunnel Wireless Report,” click here.

Smart Cities Connectivity to Boost DAS Market: ReportLinker

ReportLinker’s report, “Distributed Antenna Systems Market — Growth, Trends and Forecasts (2020 – 2025)” says that distributed antenna system (DAS) networks have helped industries overcome shortcomings of internet connectivity and high bandwidth. This help is the reason why DAS is finding further acceptance in various other regions and industries, according to ReportLinker.

“One of the major factors for the penetration of DAS has been the increasing demand for high-speed connectivity everywhere,” information from the company reads. “As technology has proved to be cost-effective, even governments across the globe have been proactively deploying this antenna system.”

Some of the advantages that are driving the demand for DAS are better-defined coverage, fewer coverage holes, same coverage using lower overall power, along with individual antennas that do not need to be elevated as high as a single antenna for the equivalent coverage, the report reads.

ReportLinker said that in the United States — especially in Las Vegas — in-building DAS has become the focus of many of the Las Vegas resorts and venues to keep customers connected with the outside world. Similar developments are expected to follow in other regions in places that have high commercial value and that want increased customer footfall with better connectivity options, according to the report.

“In smart cities, DAS has emerged as an essential solution that helps create the required infrastructure for achieving connected systems,” information disclosed by ReportLinker reads. “Smart buildings, hospitals, shopping complex and vehicular traffic management need continuous communication and, thus, are expected to boost the market demand. Several smart city projects and initiatives are ongoing across the globe, and by 2025, it is expected that there would be around 30 global smart cities, and 50 percent of these would be located in North America and Europe.”

ReportLinker said that these steps are supported by global investments, which, according to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, would be about $1.8 trillion, between 2010 and 2030, for all infrastructure projects in urban cities. This is one of the major factors pushing the demand for distributed antenna systems, primarily owing to their application in smart cities connectivity applications.

Public Safety DAS

Public safety DAS networks provide wireless service via an antenna system, particularly to buildings, in order to ensure that emergency responders can maintain wireless communications within a building structure and on the job during emergencies.

“Enabling emergency communication is crucial when it comes to the men and women who are often the first on a scene when it comes to public safety,” information from ReportLinker reads. “In case of public safety, DAS design will need to meet the system coverage requirements of both the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) and the International Fire Code (IFC). Although IFC dictates that 95 percent of coverage is needed in all areas, NFPA dictates that 99 percent coverage is required in areas of vital importance, such as those designated by the local fire department.”

According to ReportLinker, wth higher deaths due to fires in countries such as the United States, DAS networks are expected to witness an increased adoption, owing to the rising significance of public safety. The DAS market is also witnessing an increase in penetration of high-speed internet technologies, ReportLinker said, such as 4G and 5G, which has led to modifications of public safety in-building wireless DAS to support such internet speeds. This, in turn, has enabled a more extended reach and has been promoting the growth of the market, ReportLinker said.

“Furthermore, the growing trend of smart city development in emerging economies has been leading to the faster application of public safety in-building wireless DAS in several residential and commercial building complexes,” ReportLinker added. “This has again positively influenced the growth of the global public safety in-building wireless DAS market.

Competitive Landscape

ReportLinker stated the DAS market is highly fragmented because of increasing mobile data traffic, a proliferation of connected devices resulting from the internet of things (IoT), a rising need for spectrum efficiency and growing consumer demand for extended network coverage and uninterrupted connectivity.

“Many companies are now entering in to the market with an array of scope,” ReportLinker said. “Some of the key players in the market are Anixter, CommScope, PT Tower Bersama Infrastructure TBK, Corning and Antenna Products Corporation.”

Resource:

“Distributed Antenna Systems Market — Growth, Trends and Forecasts (2020 – 2025)”

Source: ReportLinker